Aeropalyonlogy

Aeropalyonlogy  is derived from two ward Areo mean air and palyonlogy mean organic .                                                                     The branch of botany that deals with study of pollen spores,bacteria/virus and fungal spores is called aeropalyonlogy.                   It is important for allergy studies  ( e.g of hay fever ) for understand spread of disease in man,other animal and agricultural plant;and recently for palaeoecologists Attempting to improve the interpretation of fossils data.                                                         Paleo Palynology.                                                 The study of fossils of micro organism is called paleo palyonlogy.                                                           It is use in fora sic science.          Palyonlogy can be applied to problem many scientific disciplines including geology,botany,palyonlogy and physical geography.

Cambium

Cambium. layer of an activity of dividing cell between the xylem and phloem which responsible for secondary growth of stem and root. Procambium. (produce new vascular tissue). Primary meristem where primary vascular tissue are developed. Procambium>primary xylem and primary phloem. Cambium. *Vascular Cambium. *Cork Cambium. These are secondary meristem in stem and root after the tissue of the primary plant body.Vascular cambium responsible for the diameter and forming a woody tissue and cork cambium produce some of bark. Cambium Structure. *Cell of the procambium differentiate to vascular tissue of xylem and phloem. *Plant in which the secondary growth are occur procambium remain meristematic and develop into (dicot and gymnosperm). Primary Tissue. Xylem and phloem(procambium). *If secondary growth occur this procambium remain into the form of cambium or lateral meristem in plant. *Secondary growth due to cambium or lateral meristem. *Cambium that are present in vascular bundle as stem collateral conjoint type of vascular bundle. xylem————-Cambium—————phloem Combil ring. Join of fascicular and inter fascicular cambium. Secondary growth × procambium>permanent tissue. Secondary growth procambium is a vascular bundle and lateral meristem. *Secondary xylem and secondary phloem from produced by periclinal division of cambium initial. *New cambium initial are produced by anticlinal. Secondary xylem>inner side. Secondary phloem>outer side.

Plant pathology.

Importance Term.                                       Plant pathology.                                                       The branch of botany that deal with nature,development,control of plant diseases.                                                                       Plant pathologist.                                                   Person who specialize in study of plant disease.                                                                      Disease.                                                                    particular obnormal condition that effect negatively on structure and function of all or part of host.But it will not be immidiate external injury.                                                        Types of disease.                                                     1-Systemic Disease.                                                 Whole body effect.                                                 2-Localized Disease.                                                 Parts of body.                                                              Pathogen.                                                                     Pathogen that generate disease.                             Pathogensis.                                                               It is a process or chain of events of disease development.                                                           Pathoginecity.                                                         It is an ability of pathogen to cause disease.     Causal Complex.                                                  It is a envirnment factor of.                               Optimum temperture.                                           Optimum humidity.                                                              Optimum light.                                                          Hyper Sensitivity.                                                      A hypersensitivity reaction is an unnecessary immune response that the body has to an antigen.                                        Host.                                                                             An organism an which disease takes place.            Types of host.                                                           1-Resistant Host.                                                     Host resistance is defined as the host abality to limit pathogen burden.                      2-Suscepible host.                                                    It is a host that is severy attack by pathogin.                                                               3-Immune Host.                                                       Host immune responses are considered to be critical in controlling the infection.Both durning primary infection and in the carrier state.                                                            Resistance.                                                              It is a abality of host which posseses the qualities that hinder completely or partialy development of disease.                                       Susceptibility.                                                             The condition of host that makes it suitable for attack by pathogen.                                        Immunity.                                                                Abality of host to resistance against given pathogen even under optimum condition.        Klenducity.                                                               Tedency of host to escape from disease is called klenducity.                                                                                                                         

Phylum Zygomycota.

2-phylum zygomycota. These are also called conjugated fungi. It is a smallest group of fungi.It makes 1% of true fungi.It contain 900 species.It is a familiar example of rhizopus Stolonifer. Habitat. It is a diverse habitat.These are trestrial organism.The live close to plants on dead decay matter.Mostly they are saprophyte.They decompose plant matter ,drug and role of carbon cycle.Some species can be found in water. Cell structure. Cell wall is a made of chitin .Zygospore is a thick wall.thallus is a coenocytic.In nutrition most species are saprobes and some species are parasites e.g insect. Importance. It is a parasite a kill the insect . Metabolic material is used in synthesis of semi synthetic steroid hormones.Certain species used in asia food fermentation. People can use it pathogenic power to control pest.These are pathogen of plant amebas , animal and their fungi .It cause serious infection in diabetic and immuno compromised individuals . A sexual Life Cycle. Sexual Reproduction. Classification of phylum zygomycota. Class:zygomycetes. Order:mucorales. Order:entomophyhoral. Genus:mucor rhizopus. Genus:entomphthora. Class:trichomycetes. Order:ecerinales. Order:herpellales. Genus:eccrina. Genus:herpella.

A Sex and sexual life cycle reproduction.

Classification of fungi.

Fungi are divided into 6 phyla.                           (1)Phylum Chytridiomycota.                               (2)Phylum Zygomycota.                                        (3)Phylum Basidimycota.                                       (4)Phylum Asomycota.                                          (5)Phylum glomelomycota.                        (6)Phylum deuteromycota.                              1-Phylum Chytridiomycota.                          It is a simple fungi , It is a true fungi.Apycard lake pre coustorian perit.More than 500 million  year ago.Cell wall is a made of chitin.One group is made both chitin and cellulose.Most chytrides are unicellular.Few are multicellular and coenocytic.e.g . Ecological habitate and cell structure is common in must protist.Chytride usually in aquatic enviorenment but some live on land e.g     some species thrive as parasite plant , insects and amphibians e.g Dendrobatidis. They cause disease in many species of amphibians resulting species decline in amphibians e.g Batracho Chytrium. And. Dendrobatidis is a skin disease. e.g Allomiyces is a sexual diploid spore and a sexual haploid spore and both meet each othe and made zygote. Life Cycle of Chytridiomycota. Phylum Chytridiomycota. Class chytridiomycetes. Order 1 chytridiales. Order 2 spizellomycetales. Order 3 synchytriales. Genus 1 chttridium. Genus 2 olipidium. Genus 3 synchytrium                                                                       

Life cycle of Chytridiomyctes

Flower

Different parts of flower

Flower is a highly specialized shoot which is responsible for production of fruit and seed is called flower. Four part of flowers. (1)Sepal. Sepal are outer most green flower sepal are collectly. (2)patel. The other part of flower are large colour part are called calyx flower They form whorl just inside the sepal,patel are collectly called Corola. (3)Stamen. Stamen are main organ of flower.They form whorl just inside Carola stamens are collectly called androsium. (4) Carpel. Female organ are flower.They are present in center of flower.Flower are collectly called gynecium. Perianth. If calyx and corolla are collectly known ase perianth.In some species calyx and corolla do not be differnciated.Thus stem perianth is used two conditions. (A)Poly Phyllous. Perianth are free from another. (B)Gamo phyllous. Perianth are united with one an other. Calyx. (A)Caducous. Sepals fall off very early soon ase the flower open. (B)Persistent. Sepal remain in place even after the food is formed. (C)Decedious. Sepal falls when the flower withers. (D)Petaloid and Sepaloid. Sepal look like petals is called Petaloid and petals look like sepals is called sepaloid. (E)Polysepalous. Sepals are free from one another. (F) Gamosepelious. Sepals are united with one another. Shape of Calyx. (a)Tubular. Tube like. (b)Infludibuliform . Fungal shape (c)Globose. Globe like. (d)Bilibiate. Forming two leaf. (e) Hooded. It is a hood like. (f) Spurred. It is a long hollow tube. Corola. (1) Cacluous. Petals fall of as soon as the flower open. (2) Sepaloid. Petals look like sepals . (3) Poly Petalous. Petals are freely form. There are 4 part. (A) Clowned. Petal are narrow at the base and expanded at the apex. (B) Croci form. Colour consist of 4 crowed petal and these are average in the form of cross. (C)Rosacea. Petals are 5 in number and they have very short cloud e.g rose (D) Carpey clacious. Calyx from long tube.It consist of 5 petals.Petals have long lives of petal spread out above the tubes. (4)Gamo Petalous. petal are united to each other.Ni of lobe or teeth indicate no of petal. Papilonacious. Five cloud petals.These petals are not similar to shapes. (A)Standard ir Vexilina. Upper posterior petals .It is large and conspicuous petal. (B)Wings. It is a two lateral free wing like petals. (C)Keel or Carina. Two interior most petal fused to form aborted shape structure.

Classification of meristem.

(1)Based On development.                               (A)Pro meri stem. *It represent primary stage*plant embryonic axis represent*Give rise to primary meri stem. (B)Primary Meristem. *Originate from pro meristem.*Divided into different planes*Always in active stage division. Secondary Meri stem. *Originate from primary permanent tissue.*Give rise to secondary permanent tissue.*Cambium and Cork Cambium. (2)Based on Position. (A)Apical Meristem. *Tips of root and shoot.*Divided into different planes.*It help to increase length. (B)Lateral Meri stem. *Present in lateral side*Divide periclinelly.*Increase in thickness width of secondary growth. (C) Intercalary Meristem. *Found between permanent tissue.*It help to elongate body*It increase length from leaf base. (3)Based on planes of division. (A)Mass Meri stem. *Divide in all planes e.g endosperm.*From a mass of cell. (B) Rib Meri stem. *Divide in single plane*Form a row of cell e.g cortex (C) Plate Meri Stem. Divide into two plane.*Form a plate of cell. (4) Based of functon. (A)Protoderm. Develop epidermal cell pro cambium.

(1)Based On development.                               (A)Pro meri stem. *It represent primary stage*plant embryonic axis represent*Give rise to primary meri stem. (B)Primary Meristem. *Originate from pro meristem.*Divided into different planes*Always in active stage division. Secondary Meri stem. *Originate from primary permanent tissue.*Give rise to secondary permanent tissue.*Cambium and Cork Cambium. (2)Based on Position. (A)Apical Meristem. *Tips of root and shoot.*Divided into different planes.*It help to increase length. (B)Lateral Meri stem. *Present in lateral side*Divide periclinelly.*Increase in thickness width of secondary growth. (C) Intercalary Meristem. *Found between permanent tissue.*It help to elongate body*It increase length from leaf base. (3)Based on planes of division. (A)Mass Meri stem. *Divide in all planes e.g endosperm.*From a mass of cell. (B) Rib Meri stem. *Divide in single plane*Form a row of cell e.g cortex (C) Plate Meristem Divide into two plane.*Form a plate of cell. (4) Based of function. (A)Protoderm. Develop epidermal cell pro cambium. (B)Pro Cambium. Develop primary vascular bundle. (C) Ground Meristem. At the end develop into width and cortex.

Different method of plasmogamy.

Types of plasmogamy
Division of plasmogay
Life cycle of plasmogamy

(1) Gameto gamy. Fusion between two gametes is called gameto gamy. Gametes have naked wall cell , sexual cell , copulate to form zygote. If gametes have equal size and shape is called iso gamete. If gametes have different size and shape is called Aniso gamete. When one gametes is motile (male gamete)and other is non motile ( female gamete) is called hetero gammy or oogamy . (2) Gametangia gamy. Fusion between two gametangia is called gametangia gamy. If Gametangia is equal size and shape and made a zygote is called zygospore. And If gametangia are different size and shape and made a zygote. It is called oospore. Plasmogamy in Gametangia gamy. (A)Gametangia Copulation. In gametangia copulation wall is dissolved and they fused to each other. (B)Gametangia Contact. In gametangia contact wall do not dissolved and they do not fused to each other. (3) Spermatization. Spermatization is a unicellular minute like conidia , non motile and male cell. e.g puccinia rust . (4) Somatiogamy. No sex cell involve and somatic cell act as gametogamy e.g homo thallus and hetero thallus.